"an author of plays, a playwright," 1670s, see drama (Greek stem dramat-) + -ist. See H. Lüders, Varuṇa, Goetingen, 1951, pp. Then the Vighnas (evil spirits) together with the Asuras resorted to magical power and paralysed the speech, movement as well as memory of the actors. The more one sees drama performed, the more vivid one’s imagination and rich one’s interpretation of a dramatic text becomes. This is a kind of art in which the reflection of life is achieved through dramatic action performed by the actors in front of the audience. 1-12). Drama is a form of literature that makes use of fiction represented in Performance. READ ALSO: Basic features of culture in Nigeria the play) would be its guardian deities. It is possibly this itihāsa that has been connected with the Nāṭyaveda by the author of the śāstra. According to the later Purāṇic geography the world was divided into seven continents such as Jambu, Plakṣa, Śālmalī, Kuśa, Krauñca, Śāka and Puṣkara. The rest of the gods, and the Gandharvas, the Yakṣas, the Rākṣasas and the Pannagas (Nāgas) who were present in that assembly and were of different birth and merit, gladly gave my sons speeches suited to their different roles [in the play]. 2. It is contrasted on the one hand with tragedy and on the other with farce, burlesque, and other forms of humorous amusement.. Origin of Drama 1. Drama queen Posted by ESC on June 02, 2010 at 15:22. Nāṭyaveda—The ‘Nāṭyaveda’ according to Ag, is a synonym for the ‘Nāṭyaśāstra’, and is no Vedic work. lord of the worlds) with folded palms and said that the dramatic art has been mastered, and prayed for his command. It included Bhārata-varṣa or Bharata-varṣa, known at present as ‘India’. This Style cannot be practised properly by men except with the help of women.” Then the powerful Lord (Brahmā) created from his mind nymphs who were skillful in embellishing the drama, and gave them over to me [for helping me] in the performance. B. and G. read some of these names differently. Eye-catching make up, facial expressions and body language of the artists are prominent features. "science of the composition and production of plays," 1795, from French dramaturgie, from Greek dramatourgia, from drama (genitive dramatos; see drama) + ergon "work, activity" (from PIE root *werg- "to do"). The drama, “Susa Banjang” (Chief Detective), which ran from 1971 to 1989, mirrored the changes in the society during that period – in its early days, the drama was primarily about crimes related to poverty, but during the 1980’s, the drama portrayed serious and violent criminals like drug dealers, robbers, kidnappers, and murderers, reflecting the social problems at that time. 121. 23. From the genitive of Late Latin drama and the plural of persona. The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. These words being uttered by Virūpākṣa, Brahmā said, ‘Enough of your anger, O Daityas, give up your grievance (lit. On these words of Śakra (Indra), Brahmā said to me; “O the sinless one, you with your one hundred sons will have to put it (the Nāṭyaveda) to use.”. 71-73. With this resolve the Holy One from his memory of all the Vedas, shaped this Nāṭyaveda compiled from the four of them. Some other formats are dance performances, radio shows, puppet shows, etc. Śiṅgabhūpāla mentions the first four. has referred to his opinion several times and quoted from his work on nāṭya (Vol. Hence it appears that Oldenberg’s theory about the original connexion between epic and dramatic poetry, is worthy of serious consideration. (countable) A drama abounding in romantic sentiment and agonizing situations, with a musical accompaniment only i… Ag. Poetics, p. 25. f. n.). Statue in the Theatre from The Greeks documentary The earliest origins of drama are to be found in Athens where ancient hymns, called dithyrambs, were sung in honor of the god Dionysus. Drama definition is - a composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character or to tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue and typically designed for theatrical performance : play. 128. 111-112. Origin of Drama: Western drama originated in Greece around 500 B.C. Oṃkāra as a deity is very rarely to be met with. melodrama (countable and uncountable, plural melodramas or melodramata) 1. From now on the numbering of couplets is wrong in B. One Svāti has been mentioned in the Viṣṇu P. Nārada is also a well-known Purāṇic sage. Now Brahmā (lit. Thus after comprehending the dramatic art (nāṭya) which arose out of the Vedas and their [different] limbs, I along with my sons as well as Svāti and Nārada approached Brahmā (lit. Once in the days of yore, high-souled sages such as, Ātreya and others who had subdued their senses, approached the pious Bharata, the master of dramatic art during an intermission of studies. As the [existing] of Vedas are not to be listened to by those born as Śūdras, be pleased to create another Veda which will belong [equally] to all the Colour-groups (varṇa).”, 13. 51-53. takes the word in the sense of proof (pramāṇam atra niścaya-janakatvam), but he cites another view as well, which takes the word to mean ‘number’. 117-118. Related: Melodramatize. Denizens of the nether regions such as, the Yakṣas, the Guhyakas and the Pannagas were employed to protect the bottom of the stage. Origin of Drama Presented by Megha B Trivedi Smt.S.B.Gardi Department of English MKBU Presentation Topic :- Origin of Drama Paper No :- 1 The Renaissance Literature M.A Sem :- 1 Roll No :- 25 Batch :- 2016-2018 Email Id :- firstname.lastname@example.org Enrolment No -2069108420170030 pp. by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831. Śālivāhana=Sātavāhana. Kauṭilya in his definition of itihāsa enumerates purāṇa and itivṛtta as belonging to its contents. For the Pitṛs (the Fathers) such as Aṅgiras, Bhṛgu, Dakṣa and Marīci and others, whose descendants peopled this earth, were his progeny. But G. considers this passage to be spurious and puts it in the footnote. The recitative (pāṭhya) he took from the Ṛgveda, the song from the Sāma[veda], the Histrionic Representation (abhinaya) from the Yajur[veda] and Sentiments (rasa) from the Atharvaveda, [and] thus was created the Nāṭyaveda connected with the Vedas principal and subsidiary (vedopaveda), by the holy Brahmā who is omniscient. He (Bharata) then just finished the muttering [of Mantras] and was surrounded by his sons. Same is the case not only with English drama, but with dramas of other nations as well. According to the Indian tradition itihāsa is said to be an account of events that occured in the past, carrying in it instructions about duty, wealth, enjoyment of pleasure, and salvation. 41. Seeing this injury to them, Indra sat in meditation to ascertain the cause of break in the performance and found out that, surrounded on all sides by the Vighnas (evil spirits), the Director (sūtradhāra) together with his associates (actors) had been rendered senseless and inert. Kauṭilya too gives the same position to the itihāsas. See more. See IHQ, XXXII (1956) p. 122. The Origin of Love (Chinese Drama); 莽荒纪之川落雪; Mang Huan Ji Zhi Chuan Luo Xue;Falling Snow; A story that follows Ji Yichuan, a gifted young warrior 1580s, "of or pertaining to acted drama," from Late Latin dramaticus, from Greek dramatikos "pertaining to plays," from drama (genitive dramatos; see drama). It will [also] give relief to unlucky persons who are afflicted with sorrow and grief or [over]-work, and will be conducive to observance of duty as well as to fame, long life, intellect and general good, and will educate people. JK. Jambudvīpa is one of them. mode of fictional representation through dialogue and performance pūjā—worshipping a deity with flowers, sweet scent, incense, music and offering of eatables. “O the high-souled one,” said Brahmā then to Viśvakarmā, “build carefully a playhouse of the best type.”. Here ends Chapter I of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of the Origin of Drama (nāṭya). This city gave birth to three genres of drama which are satyr play, comedy and tragedy. 2-5. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle's Poetics (c. 335 BC)—the earliest work of dramatic theory. and in some Purāṇas, See Vidyalankar, JK. 98-99. Of various forms of drama, plays are the most popular. 21-22. “Let it be so,” said he in reply and then having dismissed the king of gods (Indra) he resorted to yoga and recalled to mind the four Vedas. Śālikarṇa is probably identical with Śātakarṇa referred to and quoted in the commentary of the Anargharāghava (p. 7. see Lévi, II. A. K. Coomaraswamy has freely translated 106-109. Stories taken out of the Vedic lore as well as Semi-historical Tales [so embellished that they are] capable of giving pleasure, in the world, is called drama. 17. As a result the locality of the performance was changed from the interior of the church to the open spaces round it or the market place. The N L. (pp. I also think there is no trackable etymology for "drama", beyond the Greek d-r-a-m-a. He who will offer this Pūjā according to the rules and the observed practice, will attain auspicious wealth and will [in the end] go to heavens.”, 129. 120. It combines expressive means of literature, music, painting, architecture and other arts. Therefore, dramatic literature is unique in that it requires literal leg work on the part of the reader. Thus for the destruction of the Vighnas, gods were placed in different parts of the Jarjara, and Brahmā himself occupied the middle of the stage. thinks gāna in this connexion means the playing of stringed instruments and flutes. For on this point Ag. "the characters in a play," Latin for "persons of a drama." 47-50. wisdomlib - the greatest source of ancient and modern knowledge; Like what you read? 44 entries found. Middle Ages The Middle Ages is a period of European history that lasted from the 5th until the 15th centuries. Arguments can be dramatic, theatrical, etc, surely, but that doesn't change the meaning of the word. The word Drama is of Greek Origin and means Action. 82-88. The Origin of Drama. How to use drama in a sentence. See note 3 on 7-12 above. Athens was the hub of culture and literature at that time. Prekṣā (Pali pekkhā) occurring in Sikkhāpadas (c. 600 B.c.). Words, Costume and sattva) it is called drama.”. Introduction The word drama comes from the Greek meaning “to act, do or perform”, and it is in the several subtle and diverse meanings of “to perform” that drama can be said to have begun. 125. The main meaning of it is a place for spectacles. Ag. Meaning "full of action and striking display, characterized by force and animation in action or expression, fit for a drama" is from 1725. The term “drama queen” was not uncommon in the 1970’s as a reference to a female actress who played in a dramatic series, quite often a soap opera. Related: Dramatical; dramatically. The high-souled sages who controlled their senses, respectfully said to him, “O Brahmin, how did originate the Nāṭyaveda similar to the Vedas, which you have properly composed? After constructing it according to this instruction he (i.e. Aśvaghoṣa mentions it in his kāvyas. The Nāṭakalakṣaṇa (pp. In this festival where jubilant gods assembled in great numbers I uttered for their satisfaction the holy Benediction (nāndī) containing blessings with words in their eightfold aspects (aṣṭāṅga, lit. 4. Thanks. The origin of the Western Drama comes from Classical Greece. 19-20. He seems to be identical with this Dattila. grāmyadharma—Ag. This old custom is now dying out under the influence of modern theatres which realise the price of the entertainment beforehand by selling tickets. Ag. Purāṇas, except the Matsya (34.28-30) are silent on this Bharata. drums) and celestical musicians (gandharva) such as, Nārada and others were engaged in singing songs.. When you're analyzing or interpreting a piece of literature, it's useful to know something about the time period during which the work was written. Thus ordered I learnt the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā and made my able sons study it as also [learn] its proper application. [Their names are]: Mañjukeśī, Sukeśī, Miśrakeśi, Sulocanā, Saudāminī, Devadattā, Devasenā, Manoramā, Sudatī, Sundarī, Vidagdhā, Sumālā, Santati, Sunandā, Sumukhī, Māgadhī, Arjunī, Saralā, Keralā, Dhṛti, Nandā, Supuṣkalā and Kalabhā. [In it] sometimes there is [reference to] duty, sometimes to games, sometimes to money, sometimes to peace, and sometimes laughter is found in it, sometimes fight, sometimes love-making and sometimes killing [of people]. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its centre, where the theatre was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honoured the god Dionysus. See Ṛk. Medieval Drama Medieval drama, when it emerged hundreds of years after the original tragedies and comedies, was a new creation rather than a rebirth, the drama of earlier times having had almost no influence on it. In the Mattavāraṇī was placed Lightning which was capable of killing Daityas, and the protection of its pillars was entrusted to the very strong Bhūtas, Yakṣas Piśācas and Guhyakas. O Brahmins, in the days of yore when the Golden Age (Kṛtayuga) passed with the reign of Svāyambhuva [Manu], and the Silver Age (Tretāyuga) commenced with the career of Vaivasvata Manu, and people became addicted to sensual pleasures, were under the sway of desire and greed, became affected with jealousy and anger and [thus] found their happiness mixed with sorrow, and Jambudvīpā protected by the Lokapālas (guardians of the worlds) was full of gods, Dānavas, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and great Uragas (Nāgas), the gods with the great Indra as their head, [approached] Brahmā and spoke to him, “We want an object diversion, which must be audible as well as visible. So [O Daityas] you should not have any anger towards the gods; for a mimicry of the world with its Seven Divisions (sapta dvīpa) has been made a rule of, in the drama. Dramatic irony, "irony inherent in a drama and understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play," is recorded from 1907. From the five questions put in here, it is not to be assumed that the treatment of subjects mentioned will follow the order of these. As the 64 kalās enumerated in different works include different arts and crafts, these two words may be translated as ‘arts and crafts.’ Śilpa, however, is sometimes to be distinguished from kalā, and then it may mean merely ‘a craft.’. 75-76. The history of drama goes back to Aristotle and his treatise ‘Poetics’ which gives a critical analysis of Sophocles’ Greek play, ‘Oedipus Rex’. Viṣṇu P. (ch. In the early Indian literature the itihāsa alone was considered as the fifth Veda. The same tradition assigns the position of itihāsa to the Mahābhārata the great Indian epic. See Vidyalankar, JK, sub voce. "dramatist, writer of plays," 1849, from French dramaturge (1775), usually in a slighting sense, from Greek dramatourgos "a dramatist," from drama (genitive dramatos; see drama) + ergos "worker," from PIE root *werg- "to do." v origin and development of drama in the middle age: * It is rightly said that “the origins of drama have always been deeply rooted in the religious instincts of mankind”. Viṣṇu gave us a lion-seat, Kuvera a crown and the goddess Sarasvatī gave visibility as well as audibility.. 79-81. I. p. 518. All communities accept that their later drama has roots in II. form of the word makha meaning ‘sacrifice’; cf. Kohala has again been mentioned in XXXVI, 69. 76-78. Origin of Drama: With time progressing, the crowds became more interested and thronged in increasing number in those shows. The origin of the drama is deep-rooted in the religious predispositions of mankind. With a bow to Pitāmaha (Brahmā) and Maheśvara (Śiva) I shall relate the Canons of Drama, as these were uttered by Brahmā. Stories taken out of the Vedic lore as well as Semi-historical Tales [so embellished that they are] capable of giving pleasure, in the world, is called drama. 66. The Vedas are all well-known, and there are at least four Upavedas, one being attached to each of the Vedas. Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Related: Dramatized; dramatizing. So does SD (294). This is how the drama begins! See below notes 2-7. If you know a little bit about the history of the theatre, you will have a better chance of understanding the context of a play before you even begin reading it. drama | Search Online Etymology Dictionary. (archaic, uncountable) A kind of dramahaving a musical accompaniment to intensify the effect of certain scenes. In Reply to: Drama queen posted by Des on May 27, 2010 at 13:24:: would like to know the origination of 'drama queen'. The eight aspects of words are noun (nāma). I then went to that festival in honour of Indra’s victory which took place after the Dānavas and the Asuras (enemies of the gods) were killed. 113. and another that of Vāmadeva (Brahma P.), See Vidyalankar, Jīvanīkoṣa, sub voce. Hearing these words of the sages, Bharata spoke thus in reply about the Nāṭyaveda: 7-12. explains the word differently.  [Names of my sons are] Śāṇḍilya, Vātsya, Kohala, Dattila, Jaṭila, Ambaṣṭhaka, Taṇḍu, Agniśikha, Saindhava, Pulomā, Śāḍvali, Vipula, Kapiñjala, Bādari, Yama, Dhūmrāyaṇa, Jambudhvaja, Kākajaṅgha, Svarṇaka, Tāpasa, Kedāri, Śālikarṇa, Dīrghagātra, Śālika, Kautsa, Tāṇḍāyaṇi, Piṅgala, Citraka, Bandhula, Bhallaka, Muṣṭika, Saindavāyana, Taitila, Bhārgava, Śuci, Bahula, Abudha, Budhasena, Pāṇḍukarṇa, Kerala, Ṛjuka, Maṇḍaka, Śambara, Vañjula, Māgadha, Sarala, Kartā, Ugra, Tuṣāra, Pārṣada, Gautama, Bādarāyaṇa, Viśāla, Śabala, Sunābha, Meṣa, Kāliya, Bhramara, Pīṭhamukha, Muni, Nakhakuṭṭa, Aśmakuṭṭa, Ṣaṭpada, Uttama, Pāduka, Upānat, Śruti, Cāṣasvara, Agnikuṇḍa, Ājyakuṇḍa, Vitaṇḍya, Tāṇḍya, Kartarākṣa, Hiraṇyākṣa, Kuśala, Duḥsaha, Lāja, Bhayānaka, Bībhatsa, Vicakṣaṇa, Puṇḍrākṣa, Puṇḍranāsa, Asita, Sita, Vidyujjihva, Mahājihva, Śālaṅkāyana, Śyāmāyana, Māṭhara, Lohitāṅga, Saṃvartaka, Pañcaśikha, Triśikha, Śikha, Śaṅkhavarṇamukha, Ṣaṇḍa, Śaṅkukarṇa, Śakranemi, Gabhasti, Aṃśumālī, Śaṭha, Vidyut, Śātajaṅgha, Raudra and Vīra. Come to think of it, the literal meaning of this word is very apt in describing the activity, yet the word has evolved over time to offer different meanings since its beginning. Śiva is India’s traditional god of dance. 96. By drama’ in this connexion is to be understood any play in its theatrical and literary character. Drama queen definition is - a person given to often excessively emotional performances or reactions. Ātreya—There are two Ātreyas. root muṇa ‘to know’ which is most probably not of Sanskritic origin. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. 97. Maha of dhvaja-maba is simply a Pkt. Making gifts to dancers, singers and actors at a performance, is called drama. from this authority shift... `` theater '' comes from Classical Greece the Western drama originated in Greece around 500 B.C..... To ancient Indian geography, the earth was divided first into four and into. ‘ etymology of drama ’ ] together with his disciples was employed to play on musical instruments, (.... And Śiṅgabhūpāla acknowledge him as an authority on drama and the N L. ( p. 7. See Lévi,,... ( sāma ) performances, radio shows, etc were hanging about the origin of the origin of:... Also [ learn ] its proper application a theatrical culture that flourished in India... Is evidently to be the Vedic goddess of the reader ’ s traditional god dance... Dramat- ) + -ize then just finished the muttering [ of Mantras ] and was by! Muttering [ of Mantras ] and was surrounded by his sons etymology of drama with the Nāṭyaveda devised by Brahmā in 36000! ) occurring in Sikkhāpadas ( C. 600 B.C. ) body language of the sages Bharata. Are all well-known, and prayed for his command gave us a lion-seat, Kuvera a and... Śiva, and Sutta-nipāta, II, 7 ( sella-sutta ) the departments of knowledge, different arts and actions... 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